CAHNRS – Department of Entomology

Biodiversity and Sustainable Agriculture


 William E. Snyder

Department of Entomology
Washington State University
Pullman, WA 99164-6382

telephone: (509) 335-3724
fax: (509) 335-1009


Ph. D. University of Kentucky, Entomology, May 1999

M.S. Clemson University, Zoology (Ecology), August 1995

B.A. University of Delaware, Biology, January 1992


2010 – present             Professor, Dept. of Entomology, Washington State University

2005 – 2010                Associate Professor, Dept. of Entomology, Washington State University

2000 – 2005                 Assistant Professor, Dept. of Entomology, Washington State University

1999 – 2000                 USDA Postdoctoral Fellow, Dept. of Zoology, University of Wisconsin – Madison (Mentor: Anthony Ives)

1995 – 1999                 NSF-GRT Fellow and Graduate Research Assistant, Dept. of Entomology, University of Kentucky (Mentor: David Wise)

1992 – 1995                 Teaching Assistant, Depts. of Biological Sciences and Plant Pathology, Clemson Univ. (Mentors: David Tonkyn & Daniel Kluepfel)

Federal Grants

  • 2015-2020       PI (with 16 co-PIs), USDA-NIFA-SCRI, “MAP-PSILDS-PNW: Mapping and Predicting Psyllid Sources, Immigration and Locality-Specific Disease Spread in the PNW”, $2,688,111
  • 2015-2019       PI (with 7 co-PIs), USDA-NIFA-OREI, “Avian biodiversity: impacts, risks and descriptive survey (A-BIRDS)”, $1,994,090
  • 2014-2017       PI (with 4 co-PIs), USDA-NIFA-ORG, “A natural approach to human-pathogen suppression: Can biodiversity fill the GAPs?”, $498,235
  • 2013-2016       PI (with 5 co-PIs), USDA-NIFA-ORG, “BAN-PESTS: Biodiversity and natural pest suppression”, $747, 955
  • 2013-2015       co-PI (one of 9 co-PIs; Alex Stone at Oregon State University is PI), USDA-WSARE, “Integrating research and practice in systems management of organic vegetable farms”, $277,430 ($58,875 to WSU)
  • 2010-2014       PI (with 15 co-PIs), USDA-RAMP, “Area-wide Management of Potato Pests (AMPP) in the Pacific Northwest”, $2,048,490
  • 2008-2013       PI (Mike Strand, Univ. of Georgia, is co-PI), USDA-NRI Integrative Biology of Arthropods and Nematodes, “Scared sick? Predator-pathogen complementarity and biological control”, $449,900
  • 2008-2011       PI (with 5 co-PIs), USDA-WSARE, “Combining trap cropping and natural-chemical lures to attract and kill crucifer flea beetles”, $191,868
  • 2004-2008       PI (co-authored with Cory Straub), USDA-NRI Integrative Biology of Arthropods and Nematodes, “Natural enemy biodiversity and the biocontrol of aphids”, $441,000
  • 2004-2007       PI (with 7 co-PIs), USDA-WSARE, “Augmentation and conservation of insect-attacking nematodes and fungi to improve insect control in Pacific Northwest potatoes”, $138,922
  • 2003-2006       PI (co-authored with Gary Chang), USDA-NRI Biologically Based Pest Management, “Alternative prey and biocontrol by generalist predators”, $230,000
  • 2003-2006       PI (co-authored with Renee Prasad, with 5 co-PIs), USDA-WSARE, “Integrating biological control into cole crop production in the Pacific Northwest”, $63,841
  • 2001-2003       PI, Organic Farming Research Foundation and the Washington State Commission on Pesticide Registration (WSCPR), “Integrating conservation of generalist predators and specialist parasitoids in Pacific Northwest organic vegetables”,  $55,300
  • 2000-2003       PI, USDA-NRI Entomology & Nematology (postdoctoral award), “The impact of generalist predators in agricultural and refuge habitats”, $90,000
  • 1997-1999       Co-PI, NSF Doctoral Dissertation Improvement Grant, “Control of insect populations by generalist predators: Impact of intraguild predation”, $7260

Professional Service

  • Subject Editor, Ecology/Ecological Monographs, 2005 – present
  • Subject Editor, Biological Control, 2004 – present
  • Subject Editor, Food Webs, 2014 – present
  • Subject Editor, Bulletin of Entomological Research, 2002 – 2007

Research Publications

  • Eigenbrode, SD, ANE Birch, S Lindsey, R Meadow and WE Snyder. 2016. A mechanistic framework to improve understanding and applications of push-pull systems in pest management. Journal of Applied Ecology, in press.
  • Gontijo, LM, EH Beers and WE Snyder. 2015. Complementary suppression of aphids by predators and parasitoids. Biological Control 90:83-91.
  • Alyokhin, A, D Mota-Sanchez, M Baker, WE Snyder, S Menasha, M Whalon, G Dively, and WF Moarsi. 2015. The Red Queen in a potato field: Integrated pest management versus chemical dependency in Colorado potato beetle control. Pest Management Science 71:343-356.
  • Northfield, TD, DW Crowder, T Takizawa and WE Snyder. 2014. Pairwise interactions between functional groups improve biological control. Biological Control 78:49-54.
  • Gontijo, LM, EH Beers and WE Snyder. 2013. Flowers promote aphid suppression in apple orchards. Biological Control 66:8-15.
  • Gable, J, TD Northfield, DW Crowder, SA Steffan and WE Snyder. 2012. Niche engineering reveals complementary resource use. Ecology 93:1994-2000.
  • Crowder, DW, TD Northfield, R Gomulkiewicz and WE Snyder. 2012. Conserving and promoting evenness: Organic farming and fire-based wildland management as case studies. Ecology 93:2001-2007.
  • Northfield, TD, SD Eigenbrode, GB Snyder and WE Snyder. 2012. A simple plant mutation abets a predator-diversity cascade. Ecology 93: 411-420.
  • Takizawa, T, and WE Snyder. 2012. Alien versus predator: can native predators resist lady beetle invasion? Biological Control 63:79-86.
  • Jabbour, R, DW Crowder, EA Aultman and WE Snyder. 2011. Entomopathogen biodiversity increases host mortality. Biological Control 59:277-283.
  • Takizawa, T, and WE Snyder. 2011. Predator biodiversity increases the survivorship of juvenile predators. Oecologia 166:723-730.
  • Takizawa, T, and WE Snyder. 2011. Cannibalism and intraguild predation of eggs within a diverse predator assemblage. Environmental Entomology 40:8-14.
  • Crowder, DW, TD Northfield, MR Strand and WE Snyder. 2010. Organic agriculture promotes evenness and natural pest control. Nature 466:109-112.
  • Northfield, TD, GB Snyder, AR Ives and WE Snyder. 2010. Niche saturation reveals resource partitioning among consumers. Ecology Letters 13:338-348.
  • Steffan, SA and WE Snyder. 2010. Cascading diversity effects transmitted exclusively by behavioral interactions. Ecology 91:2242-2252.
  • Prasad, RP and WE Snyder. 2010. A non-trophic interaction chain links predators in different spatial niches. Oecologia 162:747-753.
  • Finke, DL, and WE Snyder. 2010. Conserving the benefits of predator biodiversity. Biological Conservation 143:2260-2269.
  • Crowder, DW and WE Snyder. 2010. Eating their way to the top? Mechanisms underlying the success of invasive insect generalist predators. Biological Invasions 12:2857-2876.
  • Ramirez, RA, DW Crowder, GB Snyder, MR Strand and WE Snyder. 2010. Antipredator behavior of Colorado potato beetle larvae differs by instar and attacking predator. Biological Control 53:230-237.
  • Ramirez, RA and WE Snyder. 2009. Scared sick? Predator-pathogen facilitation enhances the exploitation of a shared resource. Ecology 90:2832-2839.
  • Snyder, WE. 2009. Coccinellids in diverse communities: which niche fits? Biological Control 51:323–335.
  • Henderson, DR, E Riga, RA Ramirez, J Wilson and WE Snyder. 2009. Mustard biofumigation disrupts biocontrol by Steinernema spp. nematodes in the soil. Biological Control 48:316-322.
  • Ramirez, RA, DR Henderson, E Riga, LA Lacey and WE Snyder. 2009. Harmful effects of mustard bio-fumigants on entomopathogenic nematodes. Biological Control 48:147-154.
  • Finke, DL and WE Snyder. 2008. Niche partitioning increases resource exploitation by diverse communities. Science 321:1488-1490.
  • Straub, CS and WE Snyder. 2008. Increasing enemy biodiversity strengthens herbivore suppression on two plant species. Ecology 89:1605-1615.
  • Straub, CS, DL Finke and WE Snyder. 2008. Are the conservation of natural enemy biodiversity and biological control compatible goals? Biological Control 45:225-237.
  • Snyder, GB, DL Finke and WE Snyder. 2008. Predator biodiversity strengthens herbivore suppression in single and multiple prey communities. Biological Control 44:52-60.
  • Chang, GC and WE Snyder. 2008. Pymetrozine causes a nontarget pest, the Colorado potato beetle, to leave potato plants. Journal of Economic Entomology 101:74-80.
  • Prischmann, DA, DG James, CP Storm, LC Wright and WE Snyder. 2007. Identity, abundance, and phenology of Anagrus spp. associated with grape, blackberry and rose in Washington State. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 100:41-52.
  • Snyder, WE and EW Evans. 2006. Ecological effects of invasive arthropod generalist predators. Annual Review of Ecology Evolution and Systematics 37:95-122.
  • Snyder, WE, GB Snyder, DL Finke and CS Straub. 2006. Predator biodiversity strengthens herbivore suppression. Ecology Letters 9:789-796.
  • Prasad, RP and WE Snyder. 2006. Diverse trait-mediated indirect interactions in a multi-predator, multi-prey community. Ecology 87:1131-1137.
  • Prasad, RP and WE Snyder. 2006. Polyphagy complicates conservation biological control that targets generalist predators. Journal of Applied Ecology 43:343-352.
  • Straub, CS and WE Snyder. 2006. Species identity dominates the relationship between predator biodiversity and herbivore suppression. Ecology 87:277-282.
  • Prischmann, DA, DG James, LC Wright, and WE Snyder. 2006. Effects of generalist phytoseiid mites and grapevine canopy structure on spider mite biocontrol. Environmental Entomology 35:56-67.
  • Ives, AR, BJ Cardinale and WE Snyder. 2005. A synthesis of subdisciplines: predator-prey interactions, and biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Ecology Letters 8:102-116.
  • Prischmann, DA, DG James, LC Wright, RD Teneyck and WE Snyder. 2005. Effects of chlorpyriphos and sulfur on spider mites and their natural enemies. Biological Control 33:324-334.
  • Koss, AM and WE Snyder. 2005. Alternative prey disrupt biocontrol by a guild of generalist predators. Biological Control 32:243-251.
  • Koss, AM, AS Jensen, A Schreiber, KS Pike and WE Snyder. 2005. A comparison of predator and pest communities in Washington potato fields treated with broad-spectrum, selective or organic insecticides. Environmental Entomology 34:87-95.
  • Snyder, WE, GM Clevenger and SD Eigenbrode. 2004. Intraguild predation and successful invasion by introduced ladybird beetles. Oecologia 140:559-565.
  • Prasad, RP and WE Snyder. 2004. Predator interference limits fly egg biological control by a guild of ground-active beetles. Biological Control 31:428-437.
  • Chang, GC and WE Snyder. 2004. The relationship between predator density, community composition, and field predation on Colorado potato beetle eggs. Biological Control 31:453-461.
  • Snyder, WE and GM Clevenger. 2004. Negative dietary effects of Colorado potato beetle eggs for the larvae of native and introduced ladybird beetles. Biological Control 31:353-361.
  • Koss, AM, GC Chang and WE Snyder. 2004. Predation of green peach aphids by generalist predators in the presence of alternative, Colorado potato beetle egg prey. Biological Control 31:237-244.
  • Demmon, AS, HJ Nelson, PJ Ryan, AR Ives and WE Snyder. 2004. The parasitoid Aphidius ervi increases its adult size by disrupting host wing development. Environ. Entomology 33:1523-1527.
  • Snyder, WE, SN Ballard, S Yang, GM Clevenger, TD Miller, JJ Ahn, TD Hatten and AA Berryman. 2004. Complementary biocontrol of aphids by the ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis and the parasitoid Aphelinus asychis on glasshouse roses. Biological Control 30:229-235.
  • Snyder, WE and AR Ives. 2003. Interactions between specialist and generalist natural enemies: parasitoids, predators, and pea aphid biocontrol. Ecology 84:91-107.
  • Snyder, WE and DH Wise. 2001. Contrasting trophic cascades generated by a community of generalist predators. Ecology 82:1571-1583.
  • Snyder, WE and AR Ives. 2001. Generalist predators disrupt biological control by a specialist parasitoid. Ecology 82:705-716.
  • Williams, JL, WE Snyder and DH Wise. 2001. Sex-based differences in antipredator behavior in the spotted cucumber beetle. Environmental Entomology 30:327-332.
  • Snyder, WE, SB Joseph, RF Preziosi and AJ Moore. 2000. Nutritional benefits of cannibalism for the ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis when prey quality is poor. Environ. Entomology 29:1173-1179.
  • Snyder, WE and DH Wise. 2000. Antipredator behavior of spotted cucumber beetles in response to predators that pose varying risks. Environmental Entomology 29:35-42.
  • Snyder, WE and DH Wise. 1999. Predator interference and the establishment of generalist predator populations for biocontrol. Biological Control 15:283-292.
  • Snyder, WE, DW Tonkyn and DA Kluepfel. 1999. Transmission of a genetically engineered rhizobacterium by grasshoppers in the laboratory and in the field. Ecological Applications 9:245-253.
  • Preziosi, RF, WE Snyder, CP Grill and AJ Moore. 1999. The fitness of manipulating phenotypes: Implications for studies of fluctuating asymmetry and multivariate selection. Evolution 53:1312-1318.
  • Joseph, SB, WE Snyder and AJ Moore. 1999. Larvae of the ladybug Harmonia axyridis use endogenous cues to avoid cannibalizing relatives. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 12:792-797.
  • Wise, DH, WE Snyder, P Tuntibunpakul and J Halaj. 1999. Spiders in decomposition food webs of agroecosystems: theory and evidence. Journal of Arachnology 27:363-370.
  • Snyder, WE, DW Tonkyn and DA Kluepfel. 1998. Insect mediated dispersal of the rhizobacterium Pseudomonas chlororaphis. Phytopathology 88:1248-1254.
  • Snyder, WE and LE Hurd. 1995. Egg hatch phenology and intraguild predation between two mantid species. Oecologia 104:496-500.
  • Hurd, LE, RM Eisenberg, WF Fagan, KJ Tilmon, WE Snyder, KS Vandersall, SG Datz and JD Welch.1994. Cannibalism reverses male-biased sex ratio in adult mantids: female strategy against food limitation? Oikos 69:193-198.
  • Eisenberg, RM, LE Hurd, WF Fagan, KJ Tilmon, WE Snyder, KS Vandersall, SG Datz and JD Welch. 1992. Adult dispersal of Tenodera aridifolia sinensis. Environmental Entomology 21:350-353.

Books and Book Chapters

  • Gurr, GM, SD Wratten and WE Snyder (Eds). 2012. Biodiversity and insect pests: key issues for sustainable management. Wiley Blackwell.
  • Lynch, CA, DW Crowder, R Jabbour and WE Snyder. 2012. Spud web: Species interactions and biodiversity in potatoes. In: Insect Pests of the World’s Potatoes: Biology and Management (Eds. P Giordanengo, A Alyokhin and C Vincent). Elsevier.
  • Northfield, TD, DW Crowder, R Jabbour and WE Snyder. 2012. Predator functional identity and biological control. In: Interaction Richness and Complexity: Ecological and Evolutionary Aspects of Trait-Mediated Indirect Interactions (Eds. T Ohgushi, OJ Schmitz and RD Holt). Cambridge University Press.
  • Evans, EW and WE Snyder. 2010. Ladybugs. In: Encyclopedia of Invasive Introduced Species (Eds. D Simberloff and M Rejmánek). University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.
  • Eigenbrode, SD, WE Snyder, G Clevenger, H Ding, and SN Gorb. 2009. Variable attachment to plant surface waxes by predatory insects. In: Functional Surfaces in Biology (Ed. SN Gorb). Springer, New York, pp. 157-181.
  • Snyder, WE and AR Ives. 2008. Population dynamics and species interactions. In: Integrated Pest Management (Eds. EB Radcliffe and WD Hutchison). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 62-74.
  • Snyder, WE and AR Ives. 2008. Behavior influences whether intra-guild predation disrupts herbivore suppression by parasitoids. In: Behavioral Ecology of Insect Parasitoids (Eds. E Wajnberg, C Bernstein & J van Alphen). Blackwell Press, Oxford, UK, pp. 71-91.
  • Straub, CS and WE Snyder. 2006. Experimental approaches to understanding the relationship between predator biodiversity and biological control. In: Progress in Biological Control: Trophic and Guild Interactions in Biological Control (Eds. G. Boivin and J. Brodeur), pp. 221-239. Springer, New York.
  • Snyder, WE and CS Straub. 2005. Exploring the relationship among predator diversity, intraguild predation, and effective biological control. Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Biological Control of Arthropods 1:472-479.
  • Snyder, WE, GC Chang and RP Prasad. 2005. Conservation biological control: biodiversity influences the effectiveness of predators. In: Ecology of Predator-Prey Interactions (eds. P. Barbosa & I. Castellanos), pp. 324-343. Oxford University Press, London.
  • Kluepfel, DA, T Lamb, WE Snyder and DW Tonkyn. 1995. Six years of field-testing of a lacZY modified fluorescent Pseudomonad. In: Biological Monitoring of Genetically Engineered Plants and Microbes (ed. Daniel D. Jones), pp. 169 –176. Agricultural Research Institute, Bethesda, MD.

Extension Publications and Web Presentations

  • Asplund, J and D O’Brien. 2015. Systems Organic Management Suppresses Cabbageworm Outbreaks: Evidence from 4 Long-term Organic Farms. eOrganic webinar. (
  • Parker, JE and WE Snyder. 2014. Diversity by design: using trap crops to control the crucifer flea beetle. eOrganic webinar.
  • Parker, JE, C Miles, T Murray and WE Snyder. 2012. Organic management of flea beetles. Pacific Northwest Extension Publication #640.
  • Snyder, WE. 2012. Managing cucumber beetles in organic farming systems. eXtension/eOrganic publication 64274.
  • Henderson, D, E Riga and WE Snyder. 2007. Multifaceted biocontrol methods against Columbia root knot nematode and Colorado potato beetle. Potato Progress 7:3-4.
  • Lacey, LA, E Riga and WE Snyder. 2004. The potential for using insect specific pathogens for control of insect pests of potato in North America. Potato Progress 4:1-3.
  • Hoagland, L, R Gallagher, D Bezdicek, B Carter, S Higgins, M Fauci, H Hinman and W Snyder. 2003. Alternative strategies to transition to organic wheat production in the Palouse. Sustaining the Pacific Northwest 1:1-3.
  • Snyder, WE, AA Berryman, T Miller and JJ Ahn. 2003. Automated management of greenhouse rose pests. International Cut Flower Grower Bulletin (May): 16-24.
  • Snyder, WE and AK Fallahi. 2002. Using soft pesticides to conserve natural enemies in Washington potato fields. Agrichemical and Environmental News 193:1-5.
  • Snyder, WE and AK Fallahi. 2001. Bug of the month – damsel bug. Agrichemical and Environmental News 188:19.
  • Snyder, WE, AK Fallahi and MD Eubanks. 2001. Bug of the month – big eyed bug. Agrichemical and Environmental News 186:23.


Department of Entomology
Washington State University
Pullman, WA 99164-6382
Office: FSHN 264
Phone: 509-335-3724

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