John D. Stark

Professor, Ecotoxicology Program

Director, WSU Puyallup Research and Extension Center


John is also the Director of the Washington Stormwater Center and a member of the Puget Sound Partnership Science Panel.

John’s research deals with protection of endangered species and ecological risk assessment of pollutants with particular emphasis on salmon and their food.  John is also a population modeler and has developed population-level risk assessments based on matrix models and differential equation models. Recent projects involve determination of the effects of stormwater low impact development on salmon and invertebrate health and assessing the impact of pesticides on endangered butterfly species.  John has published over 115 peer-reviewed papers in scientific journals, numerous book chapters, and a book on ecological risk assessment entitled “Demographic Toxicity: Methods in Ecological Risk Assessment”.

Areas of Interest

  • Development of hazard/risk assessment for aquatic organisms inhabiting rivers and streams in the Pacific Northwest, including salmon and the invertebrates that they feed on as well as biological control organisms inhabiting agricultural ecosystems. Visit the WSU Salmon Toxicology Laboratory information page.
  • Effects of pesticides on endangered butterfly species
  • Ecotoxicology of pesticides and other toxicants in aquatic and agricultural ecosystems
  • Demographic toxicology and modeling impacts on populations.
  • Tephritid fruit fly population ecology and control


  • B.S. Forest Biology, 1978, Syracuse University
  • B.S. Biology, 1978, S.U.N.Y. Environmental Science and Forestry School, Syracuse, New York
  • M.S. Entomology, 1981, Louisiana State University
  • Ph.D. Entomology/Pesticide Toxicology, 1987, University of Hawaii


  • Toxicologist in Public Service, Pesticide Advisory Board for the Washington State Department of Agriculture. 2009-2013.
  • Member Puget Sound Partnership Science Panel, 2008 – present
  • President of the Pacific Branch of the Entomological Society of America, 2005-2006
  • Invited Expert. Society of Toxicology Workshop. Probabilistic Risk Assessment: bridging components along the exposure-dose-response continuum. July 25-27, 2005. Washington, D.C.
  • FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel on Plant Incorporated Protectants (Viral Coat Proteins) in genetically engineered plants. 2004-present.
  • Governing Board Member, Entomological Society of America 2002-2004.
  • Member of the Washington State Pesticide Task Force 2000-2003
  • Assistant Director of the State of Washington Water Research Center. July 2001-2003.
  • Member of the Washington State – Regulatory Work Group (RWG) Committee on Freshwater Sediment Toxicity Assessment 1998-2000


Text Book

Akçakaya, H.R., Stark, J.D., & Bridges, T.S. (2008). Demographic Toxicity: Methods in Ecological Risk Assessment.  OxfordUniversity Press, Oxford, UK. 277 pp.

Peer reviewed papers                      

  1. Simon-Delso N, Amaral-Rogers V, Belzunces L.P., Bonmatin, J-M, Chagnon M, Downs C, Furlan L, Gibbons DW, Giorio C, Girolami V, Goulson D, Kreutzweiser DP, Krupke C, Liess M, Long  E, McField, M, Mineau P, Mitchell EAD, Morrissey CA, Noome DA, Pisa L, Settele, J, Stark JD, Tapparo A, Van Dyck H, Van Praagh J, Van der Sluijs JP, Whitehorn PR, Wiemers M. 2015. Systemic insecticides (neonicotinoids and fipronil): trends, uses, modes of action and metabolites. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 22: 5-34.
  2. Pisa LW, Amaral-Rogers V, Belzunces LP, Bonmatin JM, Downs CA, Goulson D, Kreutzweiser DP, Krupke C, Liess M, McField M, Morrissey CA, Noome DA, Settele J, Simon-Delso N, Stark JD, Van der Sluijs JP, Van Dyck H, Wiemers M. 2015. Effects of neonicotinoids and fipronil on non-target invertebrates. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 22: 68-102.
  3. Van der Sluijs JP Amaral-Rogers V, Belzunces LP, Bijleveld van Lexmond MFIJ, Bonmatin J-M, Chagnon M, Downs CA, Furlan L, Gibbons DW, Giorio C, Girolami V, Goulson D, Kreutzweiser DP, Krupke C, Liess M, Long E, McField M, Mineau P, Mitchell EAD, Morrissey CA, Noome DA, Pisa L, Settele J, Simon-Delso N, Stark JD, Tapparo A, Van Dyck H, van Praagh J, Whitehorn PR, Wiemers M. 2015. Conclusions of the Worldwide Integrated Assessment on the risks of neonicotinoids and fipronil to biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 22: 148-154.
  4. Stark JD, Vargas RI, Souder S, Fox AJ, Smith TR, Leblanc, L, Mackey B. 2014. Simulated field applications of insecticide soil drenches for control of Tephritid Fruit Flies. Biopesticides International 10: 136-142.
  5. McIntyre JK, Davis JW, Incardona JP, Stark JD, Anulacion BF, Scholz NL. 2014. Zebrafish and clean water technology: Assessing soil bioretention as a protective treatment for toxic urban runoff. Science of the Total Environment 500-501: 173-180.
  6. Banks, JE, Stark JD, Vargas RI, Ackleh AS. 2014. Deconstructing the surrogate species concept: a life history approach to the protection of ecosystem services. Ecological Applications 24:770-778.
  7. Hamda, N.T., Forbes, V., Stark, J.D., Laskowski, R. 2014. Stochastic density dependent matrix model for extrapolating individual-level effects of chemicals to population; Case study on effects of Cd on Folsomia candida  Ecological Modelling 280: 53-64.
  8. Macfadyen S, Banks JE, Stark JD, Davies A.  2014. Using semi-field studies to examine the effects of pesticides on mobile terrestrial invertebrates. Annual Review of Entomology. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 2014. 59:383–404.
  9. Laetz CL, Baldwin DH, Hebert VR, Stark JD, Scholz NL. 2014. Elevated Temperatures Increase the Toxicity of Pesticide Mixtures to Juvenile Coho Salmon. Aquatic Toxicology 146: 38-44.
  10. Stark JD, Vargas RI, Souder S, Fox AJ, Smith TR, Mackey B. 2013. A Comparison of the Bioinsecticide, Spinosad, the Semi-synthetic Insecticide, Spinetoram and Synthetic Insecticides as Soil Drenches for Control of Tephritid Fruit Flies. Biopesticides International 9: 120-126.
  11. Palmer ET, Poor CJ, Hinman C, Stark JD. 2013. Nitrate and Phosphate Removal through Enhanced Bioretention Media; Mesocosm Study. Water Environment Research 85: 823-832.
  12. Biondi A, Zappala` L, Stark JD, Desneux N. 2013. Do Biopesticides Affect the Demographic Traits of a Parasitoid Wasp and Its Biocontrol Services through Sublethal Effects? PLoS ONE 8(9): e76548. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0076548
  13. Vargas RI, Stark JD, Banks J, Leblanc L, Mankoukis NC, Peck S. 2013. Spatial Dynamics of Two Oriental Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Parasitoids, Fopius arisanus (Sonan) and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), in a Guava Orchard in Hawaii. Environmental Entomology 42: 888-905.
  14. Laetz CA, Baldwin DH, Hebert V, Stark JD, Scholz NL. 2013. The interactive neurobehavioral toxicity of diazinon, malathion, and ethoprop to juvenile coho salmon. Environmental Science and Technology 47:2925-2931.
  15. Hanson. N., Stark, J.D. 2012. Comparison of population level and individual level endpoints to evaluate ecological risk of chemicals. Environmental Science and Technology 46:5590-5598.
  16. Vargas, RI, Souder SK, Mackey B, Cook P, Morse JG, Stark JD. 2012. Field Trials of Solid Triple Lure (Trimedlure, Methyl Eugenol, Raspberry Ketone, and DDVP) Dispensers for Detection and Male Annihilation of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii. J. Econ. Entomol. 105: 1557-1565.
  17. Stark, J.D., Chen X.D., Johnson, C. 2012. Effects of Herbicides on Behr’s Metalmark Butterfly, a Surrogate Species for the Endangered Butterfly, Lange’s Metalmark.  Environmental Pollution 164: 24-27.
  18. Hanson, N., Stark, J.D.  2012. Utility of population models to reduce uncertainty and increase value relevance in ecological risk assessment: An example with Daphnia exposed to the pesticide spinosad. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 8: 262-270.
  19. Stark, J.D., Banks, J.E. 2011. Evaluating the effects of pesticides on target & non-target organisms: Population-level approaches and models. Biopesticides International 7:71-81.
  20. Hanson, N., Stark, J.D. 2011. A comparison of simple and complex population models to reduce uncertainty in ecological risk assessments of chemicals: Example with three species of Daphnia. Ecotoxicology 20:1268–1276.
  21. *Hanson, N., Stark, J.D. 2011. Extrapolation from individual level responses to population growth rate using population modeling. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 17: 1332–1347. Award-Winning paper – HERA “Paper of the Year in Ecological Risk Assessment”
  22. Forbes, V.E., Calow, P., Grimm, V., Hayashi, T.I., Jager, T., Katholm, A., Palmqvist, A., Pastorok, R., Salvito, D., Sibly, R., Spromberg, J., Stark, J.D., Stillman, R.A. 2011. Adding value to ecological risk assessment with population modelling.  Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 17: 287–299.
  23. Deardorff, A., Stark, J.D. 2011. Population-level Toxicity of the Insecticide, Spinosad and the Nonylphenol Polyethoxylate, R-11, to Ceriodaphnia dubia. J. Environ. Sci. Health, Part B. 46: 336 – 340.
  24. Chen, X.D., Stark, J.D. 2011. Lethal and Sublethal Effects of the Neem insecticide, Azatin, on the Crustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia. Biopesticides International 6: 105-111.
  25. Chen, X.D., Stark, JD. 2010. Individual- and population-level toxicity of the insecticide, spirotetramat and the agricultural adjuvant, Destiny to the Cladoceran, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Ecotoxicology 19: 1124-1129.
  26. Vargas, R.I., Piñero, J.C., Jang, E.B., Mau, RFL, Stark, J.D., Gomez, L., Stoltman, L., Mafra-Neto, A. 2010. Response of Melon Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) to Weathered SPLAT-Spinosad-Cue-Lure1. J. Econ. Entomol. 103:1594-1602.
  27. Vargas RI, Mau RFL, Stark JD, Pinero JC, Leblac l, Souder, SK. 2010. Evaluation of methyl eugenol and cue-lure traps with solid lure and insecticide dispensers for fruit fly monitoring and male annihilation in the Hawaii areawide pest management program. J. Econ. Entomol. 103: 409-415.
  28. Chen, X.D., Culbert, E., Herbert, V., Stark, JD. 2010. Mixture effects of the adjuvant R-11 and the insecticide imidacloprid on population growth rate and other parameters of Ceriodaphnia dubia. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 73:132-137.
  29. Banks, J.E, Ackleh, A., Stark, J.D. 2010. The use of surrogate species in risk assessment: using life history data to safeguard against false negatives. Risk Analysis 30:175-182.
  30. Forbes, V.E., Calow, P., Grimm, V., Hayashi, T., Jager, T., Palmpvist, A., Pastorok, R., Salvito, D., Sibly, R., Spromberg, J., Stark, J., Stillman, R.A. 2010.  Integrating population modeling into ecological risk assessment.  Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 6:191-193.
  31. Vargas, R.I., Burns, R.E., Mau, R.F., Stark, J.D., Cook, P., and Pi?ero, J.C. 2009. Captures in methyl eugenol and cue-lure detection traps with and without insecticides and with a Farma Tech solid lure and insecticide dispenser. J. Econ. Entomol. 102: 552-557.
  32. Stark, J.D., Vargas, R, Miller, N. Chaney, N. 2009. Oral and topical toxicity of fipronil to melon fly and oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae). J. Entomological Science 44:1-7.
  33. Vargas RI, Piñero JC, Mau RFL, Stark JD,  Hertlein M, Mafra-Neto A, Coler, R, and Getchell A. 2009. Attraction and Mortality of Oriental Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) to SPLAT-MAT-Methyl Eugenol with Spinosad. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. 131: 286–293
  34. Deardorff, A., Stark, J.D. 2009.  Acute toxicity and hazard Assessment of Spinosad and R-11 to three Cladoceran species and Coho salmon. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 82: 549-553.
  35. Laetz, C.A., Baldwin, D.H., Hebert, V., Stark, J.D., Scholz, N.L. 2009. The synergistic toxicity of pesticide mixtures: implications for ecological risk assessment and the conservation of threatened Pacific salmon.  Environmental Health Perspectives 117:348-353.
  36. Stark, J.D., Vargas, R. 2009. An Evaluation of alternative insecticides to diazinon for control of Tephritid fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Soil. J. Econ. Entomol. 102: 139-143.
  37. Banks, H.T., Banks, J.E., Joyner, S.L., Stark, J.D. 2008. Dynamic models for insect mortality due to exposure to insecticides.  Mathematical and Computer Modelling 48: 316-332.
  38. Vargas, R.I., Stark, J.D., Hertlein, M., Neto, A.M., Coler, R. 2008. Evaluation of SPLAT with Methyl Eugenol or Cue-Lure and Spinosad for “Attract-and-Kill” of Oriental and Melon Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii. J. Econ. Entomol. 101: 759-768.
  39. Banks, J.E., Dick, L.K., Banks, H.T., Stark, J.D. 2008. Time-varying disturbance parameters in ecology: an alternative to matrix models. Ecological Modelling 210:155-160.
  40. Banks, H.T., Banks, J.E., Dick, L.K., Stark, J.D. 2007. Estimation of dynamic rate parameters in insect populations undergoing sublethal exposure to pesticides.  Bulletin of Mathematical Biology 69: 2139-2180.
  41. Stark, J.D., Vargas, R.I., Banks, J.E. 2007. Incorporating ecologically relevant measures of pesticide effect for estimating the compatibility of pesticides and biocontrol agents. J. Econ. Entomol. 100: 1027-1032.
  42. Stark, J.D., Acheampong, S. A. 2007. A demographic and modeling approach to determine the suitability of two hosts, Brevicoryne brassicae (Linnaeus) (Aphididae) and Myzus  persicae (Sulzer) (Aphididae) of the aphid parasitoid, Diaeretiella rapae (McIntosh) (Aphidiidae). Pan Pacific Entomology 83: 1-8.
  43. Kramarz, P. Banks, JE and Stark, JD. 2007. Density-dependent response of the pea aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) to imidacloprid.  J. Entomological Science 42: 200-206.
  44. Stark JD, Sugayama R, Kovaleski A. 2007. Why demographic and modeling approaches should be adopted for estimating the effects of pesticides on biocontrol agents. BioControl 52: 365-374.
  45. Uchida, G.K., Mackey, B.E., Vargas, R.I., Beardsley, J.W., Hardy, D.E., Goff, M.L., Stark, J.D. 2006. Response of nontarget insects to methyl eugenol, Cue-lure, Trimedlure, and protein bait bucket traps on Kauai Island, Hawaii, USA. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 38: 61-71.
  46. Stark, JD. 2006.  Toxicity endpoints used in risk assessment:  What do they really mean?  SETAC Globe 7 (2): 29-30.
  47. Adams, BM, Banks, HT, Banks, JE and Stark, JD. 2005. Population dynamics models of plant-insect herbivore-pesticide interactions.  Mathematical Biosciences 196: 39-64
  48. Vargas RI, Stark JD, Mackey B, Bull R. 2005. Weathering trials of AmuletTM, Cue-Lure and AmuletTM Methyl Eugenol attract and kill stations with male melon flies and oriental fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii. J. Econ. Entomol. 98:1551-1559.
  49. Stark JD and VargasRI.  2005. Toxicity and hazard assessment of Fipronil to Daphnia pulex. Ecotox. Environ. Safety 62: 11-16.
  50. Stark JD. Crawford, R. 2005. Short-term Effects of the Neem Insecticide, Margosan-O and Chlorpyrifos on a Spider (Araneida:  Linyphiidae) Community Inhabiting Turf Grass. Biopesticides International 1: 71-81.
  51. Stark, J.D. 2005. How closely do acute lethal concentration estimates predict effects of toxicants on populations? Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 1: 109-113.
  52. Banks, JE, Stark, JD. 2004. Aphid response to vegetation diversity and insecticide applications. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 103: 595-599.
  53. Acheampong, S. and Stark, J.D. 2004. Can reduced rates of a selective aphicide, pymetrozine and natural enemies act effectively together to control the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (Homoptera: Aphididae) on broccoli? International Journal of Pest Management  50: 275-279.
  54. Stark, JD, Vargas, RI, and N. Miller. 2004. Toxicity of Spinosad in Protein Bait to Three Economically Important Tephritid Fruit Fly Species (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Their Parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).  Journal of Economic Entomology 97: 911-915.
  55. Acheampong S and Stark JD. 2004. Effects of the agricultural adjuvant, Sylgard 309 and the insecticide, pymetrozine on demographic parameters of the aphid parasitoid, Diaretiella rapae.  Biological Control 31: 133-137.
  56. Stark, JD, Banks, JE and Acheampong, S. 2004. Estimating susceptibility of biological control agents to pesticides: influence of life history strategies and population structure.  Biological Control 29: 392-398.
  57. Stark JD, Banks JE, Vargas RI. 2004.  How risky is risk assessment? The Role that Life History Strategies Play in Susceptibility of Species to Stress. 2004. Proceedings of the NationalAcademy of Sciences 101: 732-736.
  58. Vargas, RI, Miller NW, Stark JD. 2003. Field trials of Spinosad as a replacement for Naled, DDVP, and Malathion in Methyl Eugenol and Cue-Lure bucket traps to attract and kill Male Oriental Fruit Flies and Melon Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii.  J. Econ. Entomol. 96: 1780-1785.
  59. Stark, J.D. and Vargas, R.I. 2003. Demographic changes in Daphnia pulex (Leydig) after exposure to the insecticides spinosad and diazinon. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 56: 334-338.
  60. Stark, JD and Walthall, WK. 2003. Agricultural adjuvants: acute mortality and effects on population growth rate of Daphnia pulex after chronic exposure. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 22: 3056-3061.
  61. Kramarz, P. and Stark, J.D. 2003. Population Level Effects of Cadmium and the Insecticide, Imidacloprid to the Parasitoid, Aphidius ervi after Exposure Through its Host, the Pea Aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. Biological Control 27: 310-314.
  62. Stark, J.D. and Banks, J.E. 2003.  Population-level effects of pesticides and other toxicants on arthropods. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 48: 505-19.
  63. Wood, B. and Stark, J.D. 2002. Acute toxicity of drainage ditch water from a WashingtonState cranberry growing region to Daphnia pulex in laboratory bioassays. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 53: 273-280.
  64. Vargas, R.I., M. Ramadan, T. Hussain, N. Mochizuki, R. Bautista and J.D. Stark.  2002. Comparisons of demographic parameters: Six parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and their fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) hosts. Biological Control 25: 30-40.
  65. Stark, J.D. and Banks, J.E. 2001. “Selective Pesticides”: Are They Less Hazardous to the Environment? BioScience 51: 980-982.
  66. Vargas, R.I., Peck, S.L., McQuate, G.T., Jackson, C.G. Stark, J.D. & Armstrong, J.W.  2001.  Potential for areawide management of Mediterranean fruit fly with a parasitoid.  J. Econ. Entomol. 94: 817-825.
  67. Stark, J.D. 2001. Population-level effects of the neem insecticide, Neemix on Daphnia pulex.  J. Environ. Sci and Health. B36: 457-465.
  68. Banks, J.E. and Stark, J.D. 2000. The interplay of agroecosystem diversity and pesticide use.  Pesticide Outlook 11: 48-50.
  69. Vargas, R.I., Stark, J.D., Kido, M.H., Ketter, H.M. and L.C. Whitehand. 2000. Methyl eugenol and cue-lure traps for suppression of male oriental fruit flies and melon flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii:  Effects of lure mixtures and weathering. Journal of Economic Entomology 93: 81-87.
  70. Wennergren, U. and Stark, J.D. 2000. Modeling long-term effects of pesticides on populations: beyond just counting dead animals.  Ecological Applications 10: 295-302.
  71. Vargas, R.I., Walsh, W.A. Kanehisa, D., Stark, J.D. and Nishida, T. 2000. Comparative demography of three Hawaiian fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) at alternating temperatures. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 93: 75-81.
  72. Stark, J.D. and Banken, J.A.O. 1999. Importance of population structure at the time of toxicant exposure.  Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 42: 282-287.
  73. Walthall, W. K. and Stark, J.D.  1999.  The acute and chronic toxicity of two xanthene dyes, fluorescein sodium salt and Phloxine B, to Daphnia pulex (Leydig). Environ. Pollut. 104: 207-215.
  74. Chen, C.C., Dong, Y.J. Jang, E.B. and Stark, J.D. 1999. Deterrent effects of several  compounds from neem on oviposition of the apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh). Plant. Prot. Bull. 41: 293-300.
  75. Banks, J. and Stark, J.D. 1998. What is ecotoxicology? An ad-hoc grab bag or an interdisciplinary science? Integrative Biology 5: 195-204.
  76. Banken, J.A.O. and J. D. Stark. 1998. Multiple routes of pesticide exposure and the risk of pesticides to biological controls: A study of neem and the seven-spot lady beetle, Coccinella septempunctata L.  J. Econ. Entomol. 91: 1-6.
  77. Cogger, C., Bristow, P., Stark, J.D., L. W. Getzin, and Montgomery, M. 1998. Transport and persistence of pesticides in alluvial soils: I. Simazine. J. Environ. Quality 27: 543-550.
  78. Cogger, C., Stark, J.D., Bristow, P., L. W. Getzin, and Montgomery M. 1998. Transport and persistence of pesticides in alluvial soils: II. Carbofuran. J. Environ. Quality 27: 551-556.
  79. Stark, J. D., L. Tanigoshi, M. Bounfour, and A. Antonelli. 1997.  Reproductive potential: Its influence on the susceptibility of a species to pesticides. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 37:273-279.
  80. Song, Mee Young, J. D. Stark and J. J. Brown.  1997. Comparative toxicity of four insecticides, including imidacloprid and tebufenozide to four aquatic arthropods. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 16: 2494-2500.
  81. Banken, J.A.O. and J. D. Stark. 1997. Stage and age influence on the susceptibility of Coccinella septempunctata L. (Coleoptera: Cocinellidae) after direct exposure to the neem insecticide, Neemix. J. Econ. Entomol. 90: 1102-1105.
  82. Cai, S-S and J. D. Stark.. 1997. Evaluation of five fluorescent dyes and triethyl phosphate as atmospheric tracers of agricultural sprays. J. Environmental Science and Health, Part B.32: 969-983.
  83. Cai, S-S and J. D. Stark. 1997. A method for the determination of Rhodamine B and Brilliant Sulfaflavine on cotton strings and in a spray tank mixture.  J. Environmental Science and Health, Part B. 32: 985-1004.
  84. Walthall, W. K. & J. D. Stark. 1997. A comparison of acute mortality and population growth rate as endpoints of toxicological effects. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 37:45-52.
  85. Walthall, W. K. & J. D. Stark. 1997. Comparison of two population-level ecotoxicological endpoints: the intrinsic (rm) and instantaneous (ri) rates of increase. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 16: 1068-1073.
  86. Jang, E. B., L. A. Carvalho & J. D. Stark.  1997. Attraction of female oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis to volatile semiochemicals from non-host plant leaves and extracts in laboratory and olfactometer assays.  J. Chem. Ecology 23 :1389-1401.
  87. Uchida, G. K., C. Encarnacion, J.D. Stark, R.I. Vargas, J.W. Beardsley & D. O. McInnis 1996. Design and relative efficiency of Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) bucket traps. J. Econ. Entomol. 89: 1137-1142.
  88. Longley, M. & J. D. Stark 1996. Analytical techniques for quantifying direct, residual, and oral exposure of terrestrial invertebrates to pesticides.  Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 57: 683-690.
  89. Stark, J.D. 1996. Entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Steinernenatidae): Toxicity of Neem. J. Econ. Entomol. 89: 68-73.
  90. Stark, J.D. & U. Wennergren. 1995. Can population effects of pesticides be predicted from demographic toxicological studies?  J. Econ. Entomol. 88: 1089-1096.
  91. Stark, J.D., P.C. Jepson & D. Mayer. 1995. Limitations to the use of topical toxicity data for predictions of pesticide side-effects in the field. J. Econ. Entomol.  88: 1081-1088.
  92. Stark, J.D. & J.F. Walter. 1995. Persistence of azadirachtin A and B in soil: Effects of temperature and microbial activity. J. Environ. Sci. and Health Part B30: 685-698.
  93. Stark, J.D. 1995. Noctural behavior of oriental fruit fly, melon fly and associated parasitoids in a commercial papaya growing region in Kauai.  Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 32: 149-152.
  94. Stark, J. D. & J.F. Walter. 1995. Neem oil and neem oil components affect the efficacy of commercial neem insecticides. J. Agric. Food Chem. 43: 507-512.
  95. Messing, R. H., A. Asquith, & J. D. Stark. 1995. Effects of malathion bait sprays on the non-target arthropod community associated with corn in western Kauai, Hawaii. J. of Agricultural Entomology 12: 255-265.
  96. Stark, J.D., P.C. Jepson & C.F.G. Thomas. 1994. Effects of pesticides on spiders from the lab to the landscape.  Reviews in Pesticide Toxicology.  Vol 3: 83-110.
  97. Purcell, M. F., J.D. Stark  & R.H. Messing. 1994. Insecticide effect on three Tephritid fruit flies and associated Braconid parasitoids in Hawaii. J. Econ. Entomol. 87: 1455-1462.
  98. Stark, J.D., R.I. Vargas & W.A. Walsh. 1994. Temporal synchrony and patterns in an exotic host-parasitoid community. Oecologia 100: 196-199.
  99. Stark, J.D. & T. Rangus.  1994. Lethal and sublethal effects of the neem insecticide, Margosan-O, on the pea aphid. Pesticide Science 41: 155-160.
  100. Vargas, R.I., J.D. Stark, G. Uchida, & M. Purcell. 1993. Opiine  parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) of oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) on Kauai Island, Hawaii: Islandwide relative abundance and parasitization rates in wild and orchard habitats. Environ. Entomol. 22: 246-253.
  101. Stark, J.D. & C. Shanks. 1993. Evaluation of the neem insecticide, Margosan-O, for control of soil pests in Washington State, USA. Entomol. (Trends in Agric. Sci.) 1: 7-12.
  102. Stark, J.D. 1992. Comparison of the impact of Margosan-O and Chlorpyrifos on non-target invertebrates inhabiting turf grass. Pesticide Science 36: 293-299.
  103. Stark, J. D., R. I. Vargas, R. H. Messing, & M. Purcell. 1992. Effects of cyromazine on Hawaiian Tephritid fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their endoparasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 85: 1687-1694.
  104. Stark, J. D., T. T. Y. Wong, R. I. Vargas, & R. K. Thalman. 1992. Survival, longevity, and reproduction of Tephritid fruit fly parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) reared from fruit flies exposed to azadirachtin. J. Econ. Entomol. 85: 1125-1129.
  105. Stark, J. D. & R. I. Vargas. 1992. Differential response of male oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) to colored traps baited with methyl eugenol. J. Econ. Entomol. 85: 808-812.
  106. Vargas, R. I., J. D. Stark, R. J. Prokopy & T. I. Green. 1991. Response of oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Associated Parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) to Colored spheres. J. Econ. Entomol. 84: 1503-1507.
  107. Stark, J. D., R. I. Vargas & R. K. Thalman. 1991. Diversity and abundance of oriental fruit fly parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in guava orchards in Kauai, Hawaii. J. Econ. Entomol. 84: 1460-1467.
  108. Stark, J. D., R. I. Vargas & R. K. Thalman. 1990. Azadirachtin: Effects on metamorphosis, longevity, and production of three Tephritid fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 83: 2168-2174.
  109. Stark, J. D. & R. I. Vargas. 1990. Comparison of sampling methods to estimate the number of oriental fruit fly and melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) captured in traps. J. Econ. Entomol. 83: 2274-2278.
  110. Vargas, R. I., J. D. Stark & T. Nishida. 1990. Population dynamics, habitat preference, and seasonal distribution patterns of oriental fruit fly and melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in an agricultural area. Environ. Entomol. 19: 1820-1828.
  111. Moore, A., B. E. Tabashnik & J. D. Stark.  1989.  Leg autotomy: A novel mechanism of protection against insecticide poisoning in Diamond Back Moths (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 82: 1295-1298.
  112. Stark, J. D. & M. Sherman. 1989. Toxicity, penetration, and metabolism of acephate in three fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 82: 1609-1615.
  113. Goyer, R. A. & J. D. Stark.  1984.  The impact of Neochetina eich­horniae on waterhyacinth in southern Louisiana. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management 22: 57-61.
  114. Stark, J. D. & R. A. Goyer.  1983.  Life cycle and behavior of Neochetina eichhorniae Warner (Coleoptera: curculionidae) in Louisiana: A biological control agent of waterhyacinth. Environ­mental Entomology 12: 147-150.

19. Banks, J.E., Stark, J.D., Vargas, R.I., Ackleh, A. 2011. Parasitoids and ecological risk assessment: Can toxicity data developed for one species be used to protect an entire guild? Biological Control 59: 336-339.

20. Hanson, N., Stark, J.D.  2011. An approach for developing simple generic models for ecological risk assessments of fish populations. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 30: 2372-2383.

22. Banks, J.E., Stark J.D. 2011. Effects of a Nicotinic Insecticide, Imidacloprid and Vegetation Diversity on Movement of a Common Predator Coccinella septempunctata. Biopesticides International 7:113-122.

Manuscripts in press

  1. McIntyre JK, Davis JW, Hinman C, Macneale K, Anulacion BF, Scholz NL, Stark JD. 2014. Soil bioretention protects juvenile salmon and their prey from the toxic impacts of urban stormwater runoff. Chemosphere (November 2014).

Manuscripts Submitted

  1. Stark JD, Vargas, RI, Banks JE. Incorporating variability in point estimates in risk assessment: bridging the gap between LC50 and population endpoints. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. (submitted November 2014).
  2. Vargas RI, Souder SK, Nkomo E, Cook PJ, Mackey B, Stark JD. Weathering and Chemical Degradation of Methyl Eugenol and Raspberry Ketone Solid Dispensers for Detection, Monitoring and Male Annihilation of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii. Journal of Econ. Entomol. (Submitted January 2015).

Documents Prepared for Government Entities as a consultant

  1. Stark, J.D. 2005. Environmental and Health impacts of the Mosquito Control Agent Agnique, a Monomolecular Surface Film. Report for New Zealand Ministry of Health.
  1. Stark, J.D. 2005. Recommendations for Estimating Pesticide Effects on Nontarget Organisms during Mosquito Eradication Programmes in New Zealand. Report for New Zealand Ministry of Health.
  1. Stark, J.D. 2005. A Review and Update of the Report “Environmental and health impacts of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis” by Travis R. Glare and Maureen O’Callaghan. 1998.

Report for New Zealand Ministry of Health$File/bti-update.pdf

  1. Stark, J.D. 2005. A Review and Update of the Report “Environmental and health impacts of the insect juvenile hormone analogue, S-methoprene” by Travis R. Glare and Maureen O’Callaghan, 1999. Report for New Zealand Ministry of Health.$File/s-methoprene-update.pdf
  1. Frampton ER., Stark JD, Frampton CM, Glare TR, Beckert L. 2006. Environmental and Health Impacts of Aerially-Applied Bacillus thuringiensis Kurstaki-based Insecticides. Report for New Zealand Ministry of Agricultural and Forestry, BioSecurity New Zealand.

Puget Sound Partnership Documents

Puget Sound Partnership Biennial Science Work Plan 2009-2011.

December 1, 2008  33 pp. Prepared by the Puget Sound Partnership Science Panel. Puget Sound Partnership. Olympia, Washington.

Puget Sound Partnership Strategic Science Plan. June 2010 final review draft.

Prepared by the Puget Sound Partnership Science Panel. Puget Sound Partnership. Olympia, Washington.

Other Documents

Toxic Policy Reform for Washington State. Submitted to Governor Inslee by the Washington Toxics Reduction Strategies Workgroup, January 16, 2013.

Professional Articles,


  1. Banks, H.T., Banks, J.E., Dick, L.K., Stark, J.D. 2005.  Estimation of dynamic rate parameters in insect populations undergoing sublethal exposure to pesticides.

2. Adams, B.M., Banks, H.T., Banks, J.E. and Stark, J.D. 2003.  Population Dynamics Models in Plant-Insect Herbivore-Pesticide Interactions.  Center for Research in Scientific Computation and Department of Mathematics, North Carolina State University. Technical Report (CRSC-TR03-12)

3. Kareiva, P.K. & J.D. Stark. 1994. Environmental risks in agricultural biotechnology.

Chemistry and Industry 2: 52-55. Invited paper for Society of Chemical Industry, UK.

Book Chapters

1.      Stark, J.D. 2012. Demography and modeling to improve pesticide risk assessment of endangered species. In Racke et al. [eds.] “The Endangered Species Act and Pesticide Regulation: Scientific and Process Improvements” American Chemical Society Symposium Series, Am.Chem. Soc., Washington, DC. Pp. 259-270.

2.      Banks, J.E., Ackleh, A.S., and J.D. Stark. 2012. Population models & data in applied ecology: Surrogate species. In Kojima, F., Kobayashi, F. & H.

Nakamoto (eds.) Simulation and Modeling related to Computational Science and Robotics Technology (Proceedings Series). IOS Press, Amsterdam, Netherlands. pp. 34-43.

3.      Stark, J.D. 2012. Effects of neem on spiders. In Nentwig, W. [ed.] “Ecophysiology of spiders”. Springer Verlag.

4.      Banks, J.E. and Stark, J.D. 2009.  Ecotoxicology: Life History Data and Population Models. In Ecotoxicology Research Developments. In: Santos, E.B., (ed) Ecotoxicology Research Developments. Nova Science Publishers, Hauppauge, New York

5.      Stark, J.D. 2009. Development and use of matrix population models for estimation of toxicant effects in ecological risk assessment. In Thorbeck et al. [eds.] “Ecological Models for Regulatory Risk Assessments of Pesticides: Developing a Strategy for the Future”. CRC Press, Boca Raton. Pp.

6.      Stark, J.D. and Vargas, R.I. 2009. Tephritid Fruit Fly Life Table Construction and Analysis. In Bandeira, R.R. [ed.]. Current Trends in Fruit Flies Control on Perennial Crops and Research Prospects.  Pp. 159-168. Transworld Research Network, Kerala, India.

7.      Akçakaya, H.and Stark, J.D. 2008. Demographic toxicity: assessing the population-level impacts of contaminants.  In Akçakaya, H., Stark, J.D., & Bridges, T. [eds.]. Demographic Toxicity: Methods in Ecological Risk Assessment.  Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK. pp. 3-19.

8.      Stark, J.D. 2008. Water Flea Daphnia pulex: Population Recovery after Pesticide Exposure.  In Akçakaya, H., Stark, J.D., & Bridges, T. [eds.]. Demographic Toxicity: Methods in Ecological Risk Assessment.  Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK. pp. 143-151.

9.      Stark, J. D. 2006.  Ecotoxicology of neem.  In Crop Protection Products for Organic Agriculture. Environmental, Health, and Efficacy Assessment. Felsot, A.S., K. D. Racke (ed.); American Chemical Society Symposium Series 947, Am.Chem. Soc., Washington, DC.  pp. 275-286.

10.  Stark, J.D. 2004. Risk assessment of neem products: Environmental implications. In Koul & Wahab [ed] “Neem: Today and in the new millenium” pp. 97-107. Kluwer Academic Publishers, London

11.  Stark, J.D. 2003.  Neem, Surfactants, and Pirimor: Increasing the Effectiveness of Neem for Aphid Control. Pp. 119-122.  Proceedings of the World Neem Conference (May 19-21 May 1999), University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada (ed. H.M. Behl), Publisher: Neem Foundation, Mumbai, India, 2002

12.  Stark, J. D. 2000. An overview of risk assessment. In “Incorporating Science, Economics, and Sociology in Developing Sanitary and Phytosanitary Standards in International Trade: Proceedings of a Conference” Chapter 3, pp. 51-64.  National Research Council.

National Academy Press, Washington D.C.

  1. Stark, J. D. & J. E. Banks. 2000. The toxicologists’ and ecologists’ point of view-unification through a demographic approach. Chapter 2, pp. 9-23. In: Eds: Kammenga and Laskowski, Demography in Ecotoxicology.  John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. London.
  2. Stark, J.D. 1999. Population structure and differential susceptibility among life stages: implications for population effects of toxicants. pp. 235-240. In: Eds: M. B. Thomas and T. Kedwards Challenges in Applied Population Biology. Aspects of Applied Biology 53. The Association of Applied Biologists.
  3. Stark, J. D., J. A. O. Banken, & W. K.Walthall.  1998. The Importance of the population

perspective for the evaluation of side-effects of pesticides on  beneficial species. Chapter 37,pp. 348-359. In: Eds: Haskell and McEwen, Ecotoxicology: Pesticides and Beneficial

Organisms. Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  1. Stark, J.D. 1997.  Risk assessment of neem insecticides: Persistence in the environment and potential impact on nontarget organisms. Pp. 69-74.  In Rodcharoen, J., Wongsiri, S., and Mulla, M. [eds.] Biopesticides: Toxicity, Safety, Development and Proper Use. Proceedings 1st International Symposium on Biopesticides.  Chulalongkorn, University Press, Bangkok, Thailand.
  2. Kareiva, P. K., J. D. Stark &  U. Wennergren.  1996.  Using Demographic Theory, Community Ecology, and Spatial Models to Illuminate Ecotoxicology, In: Ecotoxicology: Ecological Dimensions, eds. Maltby, L. & Greig-Smith, P. Chapman Hall. 13-23.

Stark, J.D. 1994. Chemical Fumigants. In: Insect Pests and Fresh Horticultural Products: Treatments and Responses, eds. Paull, R.E. & Armstrong, J., C.A.B., International, Wallingford, U.K.  pp. 69-84.






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