Stephen L. Clement

Graduate Faculty
Scientist, USDA

Areas of Interest

Biology, behavior, taxonomy and pollination biology of wild bees and wasps, Davis, CA and Yellowstone National Park (1970-1974); Management and population dynamics of rice pests in Northern California (1972-1976); Lepidoptera pheromone production and identification, with emphasis on the Artichoke Plum Moth, Davis, CA (1976); Management of insect pests of field and sweet corn in Ohio (1976-1980); Biological control of purslane with insects, Albany, CA (1981); Foreign exploration and host-specificity testing of biological weed control agents, with emphasis on yellow starthistle and field bindweed, Rome, Italy (1982-1986); Host-plant resistance, emphasis on insect pests of food legumes (1987-1997), wheat relatives (1990-present), and cool season perennial grasses including the association of insect resistance with fungal endophyte presence (1989-present), Pullman, WA; Development of insect-pollination systems for germplasm regeneration activities at the Western Regional Plant Introduction Station, Pullman, WA (1992-present); Agricultural entomology, with emphasis on management of insect pests of germplasm nurseries (1987-present) and pests of no-till/spring-wheat cropping systems (1996-present).


Ph.D. Entomology, University of California, Davis, 1976.

Specialty areas: Agricultural entomology, insect ecology, aquatic entomology, plant pathology, plant ecology.

Dissertation: “A Structural and Phenological Analysis of the Chironomid Community of California Rice Fields: Implications to Injury of Rice Plant Seedlings.”

M.S. Entomology, University of California, Davis, 1972.

Thesis: “Biological Investigations of Aculeate Hymenoptera from Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.”

B.S. Entomology, University of California, Davis, 1967.


(Approximately 140, including 70 peer-reviewed journal articles, 7 book chapters and one co-edited book. Selected examples listed).

Research: Bees and wasps

Clement, S.L. and Grissell, E.E. 1968. Observations on the nesting habits of Euparagia scutellaris (Hymenoptera: Masaridae). Pan-Pacific Entomol. 44:34-37.

Rust, R.W. and Clement, S.L. 1972. The biology of Osmia glauca and Osmia nemoris (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 45:423-428.

Clement, S.L. 1976. The biology of Dianthidium heterulkei heterulkei (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) with a description of the larva. Wasmann J. Biology 34:9-22.

Clement, S.L. 1984. Observations on the behavior of Triepeolus nr. eldredi (Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae). Pan-Pacific Entomol. 60:300-303.

Research: Dragonflies

Meyer, R.P. and Clement, S.L. 1978. Studies on the biology of Tanypteryx hageni in California. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 71:667-669.

Clement, S.L. and Meyer, R.P. 1980. The adult biology and behavior of the dragonfly Tanypteryx hageni (Odonata: Petaluridae). J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 53:711-719.

Research: Rice Insects

Grigarick, A.A., Way, M.O. and Clement, S.L. 1976. Results off rice variety tolerance tests to the rice water weevil in California. Proceedings 16th Rice Technical Working Group, p. 63. Texas Agric. Exp. Stn., College Station, TX.

Clement, S.L., Grigarick, A.A. and Way, M.O. 1977. The conditions associated with rice plant injury by chironomid midges in California. Environ. Entomol. 6:91-96.

Clement, S.L., Grigarick, A.A. and Way, M.O. 1977. The colonization of California rice paddies by Chironomid midges. J. Applied Ecol. 14:379-389.

Research: Insect Pheromones

Birch, M.C., Bushing, R.W., Paine, T.D., Clement, S.L. and Smith, P.D. 1977. Pheromone traps to suppress populations of the smaller European elm bark beetle. Calif. Agric. 31:4-6.

Clement, S.L., Hill, A.S., Levine, E. and Roelofs, W.L. 1981. Trap catches of male Agrotis ipsilon with synthetic sex pheromone emitted from different dispensers. Environ. Entomol. 10:521-523.

Clement, S.L., Show, E.D. and Way, M.O. 1982. Black cutworm pheromone trapping in strawberries. Calif. Agric. 36:20-21.

Research: Insecticidal Control

Clement, S.L. and Szatmari-Goodman, G. 1979. Northern corn rootworm larval suppression by insecticides in Ohio. ESA Insecticide and Acaricide Tests, Vol. 4.

Clement, S.L., Riedel, R.M. and Blair, B.D. 1980. Take another look at your soil insecticide. The Ohio Farmer. Jan. 5, 1980.

Clement, S.L., Schmidt, R.S., Szatmari-Goodman, G. and Levine, E. 1980. Acitivity of xanthine dyes against black cutworm larvae. J. Econ. Entomol. 73:390-392.

Research: Bionomics, Damage Potential, and Biocontrol of Corn Pests

Clement, S.L., Rubink, W.L., Rings, R.W. and Casey, M. 1981. Predicting the flight activities of the European corn borer. Ohio Report 66:3-4.

Simonet, D.E., Clement, S.L., Rubink, W.L. and Rings, R.W. 1981. Temperature requirements for development and oviposition of Peridroma saucia (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Can. Entomol. 113:891-897.

Clement, S.L. and McCartney, D.A. 1982. Black cutworm : measurement of larval feeding parameters on field corn in the greenhouse. J. Econ. Entomol. 75:1005-1008.

Rubink, W.L. and Clement, S.L. 1982. Reproductive biology of Bonnetia comta (Diptera: Tachinidae), a parasitoid of the black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Environ. Entomol. 11:981-985.

Levine, E., Clement, S.L. and McCartney, D.A. 1984. Effect of injury by the stalk borer Papaipema nebris (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), on regrowth and yield of corn seedlings. J. Econ. Entomol. 77:167-170.

Clement, S.L., Rubink, W.L. and McCartney, D.A. 1986. Larviposition response of Bonnetia comta (Diptera: Tachinidae) to a kairomone of Agrotis ipsilon (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Entomophaga 31:277-284.

Showers, W.B., Keaster, A.J., Witkowski, J.F., Clement, S.L., Chiang, H.C. and Sparks, A.N. 1990. Manipulation of the larval diapause response of the European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Environ. Entomol. 19:1311-1319.

Research: Grain Legume Insects

Clement, S.L., Lathrop, L.A. and Muehlbauer, F.J. 1988. More on the pea’s nectaries and insect visitors. Pisum Newsletter 20:3-4.

Clement, S.L. 1992. On the function of pea flower feeding by Bruchus pisorum. Entomol. Exp. et Appl. 63:115-121.

Clement, S.L., Sharafeldin, N. El-Din, Weigand, S. and Lateff, S.S. 1994. Research achievements in plant resistance to insect pests of cool season food legumes, pp. 290-304. In: Expanding the Production and Use of Cool Season Food Legumes (Muehlbauer, F.J. and Kaiser, W.J., eds.). Kluwer Academic, The Netherlands (Invited Book Chapter).

Doss, R.P., Proebsting, W.M., Potter, S.W. and Clement, S.L. 1994. Response of Np mutant of pea to pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum) oviposition and extracts. J. Chem. Ecol. 21:97-106.

Clement, S.L., Evans, M.A. and Lester, D.G. 1996. Settling and feeding responses of pea weevil (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) to flowers of selected pea lines. J. Econ. Entomol. 89:775-779/

Clement, S.L., Cristofaro, M., Cowgill, S.E. and Weigand, S. 1999. Germplasm resources, insect resistance, and grain legume improvement, pp. 131-148. In: Global Plant Genetic Resources for Insect-Resistant Crops (Clement, S.L. and Quisenberry, S.S., eds.). CRC Press. (Book Chapter).

Clement, S.L., Wightman, J.A., Hardie, D.C., Bailey, P., Baker, G. and McDonald, G. (In press). Opportunities for integrated management of insect pests of grain legumes. In: Linking Research and Marketing Opportunities for Pulses in the 21st Century (R. Knight, ed.). Kluwer Academic, The Netherlands (Invited Book Chapter).

Research: Aphids, Grasses, and Fungal Endophytes

Clement, S.L., Johnson, R.C. and Pike, K.S. 1990. Field populations of the Russian wheat aphid and other cereal aphids on cool-season perennial grass accessions. J. Econ. Entomol. 83:846-849.

Wilson, A.D., Clement, S.L. and Kaiser, W.J. 1991. Survey and detection of endophytic fungi in Lolium germplasm by direct staining and aphid assays. Plant Disease 75:169-173.

Clement, S.L., Lester, D.G., Wilson, A.D. and Pike, K.S. 1992. Behavior and performance of Diuraphis noxia on fungal endophyte-infected and unifected perennial ryegrass. J. Econ. Entomol. 85:583-588.

Clement, S.L., Kaiser, W.J. and Eichenseer, H. 1994. Acremonium endophytes in germplasms of major grasses and their utilization for insect resistance, pp. 185-199. In: Biotechnology of Endophytic Fungi of Grasses (Bacon, C.W. and White, J., eds.). CRC Press. (Invited Book Chapter).

Clement, S.L., Wilson, A.D., Lester, D.G. and Davitt, C.M. 1997. Fungal endophytes of wild barley and their effects on Diuraphis noxia population development. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 82:275-281.

Doss, R.P., Clement, S.L., Kuy, S.-R. and Welty, R.E. 1998. A PCR-based technique for detection of Neotyphodium endophytes in diverse accessions of tall fescue. Plant Disease 82:738-740.

Clement, S.L. and Lester, D.G. 1999. Field evaluation of wild barley against Russian wheat aphid. Arthropod Management Tests 24:409.

Research: Biological Weed Control

Clement, S.L. and Norris, R.F. 1982. Two insects offer potential biological control of common purslane. Calif. Agric. 36:16-18.

Klisiewicz, J.M., Clement, S.L. and Norris, R.F. 1983. Black stem: a fungal disease of common purslane in California. Plant Disease 67:1162.

Nuzzaci, G., Mimmocchi, T. and Clement, S.L. 1985. A new species of Aceria (Acari: Eriophyidae) from Convolvulus arvensis with notes on other eriophyid associates of convolvulaceous plants. Entomologica 20:81-89.

Clement, S.L., Mimmocchi, T., Sobhian, R. and Dunn, P.H. 1988. Host specificity of adult Eustenopus hirtus, a potential biological control agent of yellow starthistle. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 90:501-507.

Clement, S.L. 1990. Insect natural enemies of yellow starthistle in southern Europe and the selection of candidate biological control agents. Environ. Entomol. 19:1882-1888.

Clement, S.L. and Sobhian, R. 1991. Host-use patterns of capitulum-feeding insects of yellow starthistle: results from a garden plot in Greece. Environ. Entomol. 20:724-730.

Clement, S.L. 1994. Resistance among populations of yellow starthistle to insect natural enemies: results from common garden plots in Italy. Biological Control 4:149-156.

Clement, S.L. and Cristofaro, M. 1995. Open-field tests in host-specificity determination of insects for biological control of weeds. Biocontrol Science and Technology 5:395-406. (Review Article).

Research: Germplasm Preservation, Use, and Value for Entomological Endeavors

Clement, S.L. Preserving plant biodiversity: Pullman’s seed-bank. Agrichemical and Environmental News 108:8-9.

Clement, S.L. and Quisenberry, S.S., Eds. 1999. Global Plant Genetic Resources for Insect-Resistant Crops, 295 pp. CRC Press.

Clement, S.L. 1999. Ex situ genebank practices: protecting germplasm nurseries from insect pests. Plant Genetic Resources Newsletter 119:46-50.


Certificate of Appreciation for Exemplary Work, U.S. Department of Interior, as Seasonal Ranger-Naturalist, Yellowstone National Park, October 1973.

Recommended for tenure candidacy after 3.5 years as an Assistant Professor of Entomology, The Ohio State University (letter dated Dec. 29, 1980 from L.D. Goleman).

Certificate of Appreciation, U.S. Department of Agriculture, for extraordinary efforts in response to terrorist bombing of ARS laboratory, Rome, Italy, 1984.

Certificate of Merit, U.S. Department of Agriculture, for leadership in biological control of yellow starthistle and other invasive weeds. Rome, Italy, 1986.

Plaque in appreciation of advice and friendship as Faculty Advisor, Alpha Zeta students, Washington State University, 1991.

Certificate of Appreciation, U.S. Pea and Lentil Industry, in recognition of excellence in research to the industry, 1993.


Grants totaling approximately $310,000 were awarded by Environmental Protection Agency and various funding bodies (chemical, grower groups) to support research in corn pest management, The Ohio State University and the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, 1977-1980.

Extramural grants totaling $145,000 have been obtained, 1988-1999, from ARS (postdoc program), CSREES (cool season food legume program), USDA-FAS (International cooperation program), and various funding bodies (STEEP, wheat commission, etc., to support cropping systems research).

Teaching Activities

Dr. Clement has no formal teaching responsibilities as an ARS Research Entomologist at Washington State University. Lectures in classes, from time to time, at WSU and the University of Idaho.

Previous teaching experience: 1. Insect and plant ecology, 2-week summer field course, Teton Science Camp, Wyoming, 1978 and 1978; 2. Frequent lecturer in Economic Entomology, Department of Entomology, Ohio State University, Columbus, 1977-1980.


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